Physiology and Pathophysiology of bone: impact on preclinical models and traslational research

Skeletal tissue is composed by different cells and a mineralized extracellular matrix. Many coordinated processes contribute to bone physiology and pathophysiology such as inflammation, angiogenesis, bone resorption, formation, mineralization. All these factors may be taken into consideration when selecting preclinical models that, ideally, must recapitulate the complex processes of bone repair/regeneration: bone tissue and cell heterogeneity, influence of mechanical forces, bone remodelling, influence of systemic and local factors, influence of diseases and drug administration. Co-cultured 3D models of human cells/tissues will be discussed for the investigation of different issues such as biomaterials and osteointegration, bone defect regeneration, bone tumours and osteoporosis in order to translate both knowledge and innovative strategies to the clinical scenario.