Mimicking the nature with biofabrication

Although mimicking nature becomes crucial in finding solutions for many diseases, it is still challenging. An innovative technique that may overcome a current limitation in reproducing complex human tissues and organs is biofabrication. This emerging fabrication technology relies on the simultaneous deposition of cells and biomaterials, mostly in a layer-by-layer fashion, to form 3D well-organized living heterogeneous structures that can mirror physiologically and morphologically relevant complex biological architectures. Biofabrication approach based on a microfluidic system coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D deposition of hydrogel fibers laden with a different type of cells has been auspicious. By formulating tailored hydrogel-based bioinks and precisely controlling the spatial organization of the hydrogel fibers, it was possible to biofabricate advanced engineered living constructs mimicking natural musculoskeletal tissues like cartilage, tendon, muscle or vessels.