The Basic Principles of Histogenesis, cell plasticity and tissue homeostasis

Changes in shape and tissue composition and distribution are fundamental to allow human development. The growth consists of both new cell formation and cell differentiation: cell division predominates in early development and differentiation in late. Different tissues and anatomical regions of the body mature at different rates, and the growth and development of an individual consists of a highly complex series of changes that interact with one another continuously, in a highly regulated and controlled way. The control of human developmental morphogenesis, cell plasticity, and tissue homeostasis is driven by chemical and physical factors, with specific changes in molecular biochemistry and gene expression, and cytoskeleton seems the hub for mechano-chemical transduction events. The knowledge on these dynamical cues in situ interaction during embryological development are key elements for strategies favoring tissue regeneration, reversing developmental defects, and treating diseases.